Unit  Credits  Academic sector  Period  Academic staff 

Teoria  6  FIS/01EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS  2° Q, 3° Q 
Gino Mariotto

Laboratorio  1  FIS/01EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS  2° Q, 3° Q 
Francesca Monti

Module: Theory

The course is addressed to students of the Corsi di Laurea triennale in Information Technologies: Multimedia and is offered during the second and third quadrimesters.
The aims of the course is to give the fundamentals of experimental method and of classic mechanics of particule, of particle systems and of thermodynamics. The course is comprehensive of mathematical complements and numerical exercises, aimed to bringing the student to undergo and overcome the written proof of final examination.
Module: Laboratorio

Aim of the module is to give basic knowledge as regards direct and indirect measurement of physical quantities and evaluation of uncertainty taking into account instrument resolution, random errors and sistematic errors.
Module: Teoria

Mechanics:
1.  Measurements and units
What’s Physics. The experimental method. Measurement concept. Physics quantities. Fundamental quantities and SI units. Scalar and vector quantities. Dimensional analysis.
2.  Kinematics
Relativity of motion. Frames of reference. Position, displacement, velocity and acceleration. Motion along a straight line. Motion in two and three dimensions. Motion under constant acceleration. Circular motion.
3.  Relative motion
Relative velocity. Uniform relative translation motion. Galileo’s transformations. Relative rotational motion. Motion relative to the Earth (Hints).
4.  Dynamics of a particle
Law of inertia. Linear momentum. Principle of conservation of momentum. Inertial references frames. Concept of force. Newton’s second and third laws. Fundamental interactions in nature. Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Some particular forces: weight, elastic forces, frictional forces. Apparent forces in noninertial reference frames.
5.  Work end energy
Impulsion. Work. Power. Kinetic energy. Workkinetic energy theorem. Conservative forces. Potential energy. Conservation of Mechanical energy of a particle. Motion of a particle under a conservative force. Curves of potential energy. Work done by nonconservative forces.
Central forces. Angular momentum and torque of a central force. Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Motion of a body under gravitational interaction
6.  Dynamics of a system of particles
Centre of mass of a system of particles: properties and motion. Linear momentum. Internal and external forces. Conservation of linear momentum. The twobody problem. Angular momentum of a system of particles. Kinetic energy of a system of particles. Angular momentum conservation and total energy conservation of a system of particles. Collisions between particles.
7.  Dynamics of a rigid body
Angular momentum of a rigid body. Momentum of inertia. Parallelaxes theorem. Torque. Work and rotational kinetic energy.
8.  Fluids. Hydrostatics. Volume and surface forces. Hydrostatic pressure. Laws of Archimede and Stevino. Hydrodynamics (hints). Bernoulli’s theorem.
Thermodynamics:
1.  Thermodynamic systems.
Thermodynamic system and ambient. Thermodynamic universe. Properties, variables, states, and processes. Thermodynamic equilibrium. State equation.
Thermal equilibrium. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Temperature. Mesuring temperature. Thermometers. Temperature scales.
Temperature and heat. Heat transfers. Heat capacity. Specific heat. Heat of transformation. Measuring heat. Calorimeters.
Ideal gases. State equation of an ideal gas. Real gases (hints).
Thermodynamic transformations. Quasistatic transformations. Reversible and irreversible processes. Transformations of gases. Adiabatic transformations. Thermodynamic work.
2.  First law of thermodynamics
Joule’s experiments. Equivalence between work and heat. Internal energy. Energy conservation of a thermodynamic system.
Internal energy of an ideal gas. Molar specific heats. Mayer’s relations. The first law of thermodynamics for an ideal gas.
Cyclic processes. Efficiency of a thermal cycle. Carnot’s cycle. Other relevant cycles (Stirling, Otto, Diesel, Joule). Efficiency of the Carnot ideal heat engine. Reversed Carnot engine: coefficient of performance.
3.  Second law of thermodynamics and Entropy.
Formulations of the second law of thermodynamics and their equivalence.
Carnot’s theorem. Maximum efficiency. Thermodynamic temperature scale. Kelvin unit of temperature. Absolute zero temperature.
Clausius relation. Entropy: definition and derivation. Calculation of entropy change. TS diagrams. Carnot cycle using TS coordinates. Cyclic transformations and heat exchange with heat sources. Irreversible transformations: the free expansion of an ideal gas. Entropy of the thermodynamic universe.
Module: Laboratorio

Physical quantities measurement: direct and indirect measurements; the experimental method; unit systems of measurements; measuring instruments, resolution and uncertainty.
Random errors: hystograms and statistical parameters, limit distribution, gaussian distribution; parameters estimation for a gaussian distribution, uncertainty due to random errors; comparison between measurement resolution and random errors.
Systematic errors: uncertainty in case of inconsistent measurements, global uncertainty.
Absolute and relative uncertainty. Propagation of uncertainty in indirect measurements.
A laboratory experience: measurement of the oscillation period of a pendulum and determination of gravitational acceleration.
Module: Teoria

The final examination consists of both written and oral parts. The admission to oral proof is subordinated to good score of the written proof, consisting into the resolution of some problems related to program done during classes. The validity written proof is limited to three examination sessions.
Module: Laboratorio

Written relation on the laboratory experience.
The examination dates are fixed taking into account the kalendar of examination sessions approuved by the Faculty.